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International Journal for Housing Science and Its Applications

The world is facing a major dormant housing crisis. It will create economic, social and political changes. It is time to give a high priority to housing studies, planning and production in the development programs of every nation. The uncontrolled population increases, migration from rural to urban areas, and decay of existing housing units are the major reasons behind the urgent need for more and better housing. This is a universal trend which is affecting every community. The prediction of an United Nations study is that during the next thirty years, the world’s population will increase by 3.5 billion. Assuming five persons per family, this growth in population will translate into 600 million new homes next thirty years, or twenty million per year. This is a difficult task to achieve. Housing science will be the base of all innovations needed to establish a successful approach to a permanent solution. The International Journal for Housing Science and Its Applications, with its multi and inter-disciplinary concepts, is dedicated to achieve the objective of providing better living environment through the dissemination of scientific and technological knowledge.

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Professor Oktay Ural (Late)

Professor Oktay Ural (Late)

Florida International University Miami, Florida , USA

Recently Published Articles

Naveed Ahmad1
1Real State Agent, Canada.

Lenders typically require mortgage appraisals before approving a loan to ensure the property’s value justifies the amount of the mortgage. However, when appraisers have access to transaction price information and are compensated by the lenders, a conflict of interest may arise. This situation can incentivize appraisers to inflate property values to match or exceed the transaction price, aligning their valuations with the interests of lenders and potentially compromising their objectivity. This paper introduces an alternative theoretical framework that diverges from the traditional moral hazard model. Drawing from the appraisal updating process and incorporating a signaling extension from previous research, we propose a new theoretical model that generates unique empirical predictions. To test both the original moral hazard model and our alternative theory, we use appraisal and transaction data from a lending institution in Singapore. Our empirical analysis demonstrates that the findings support our alternative theoretical model, suggesting a different mechanism at play in the valuation process during various market conditions.

George Wright1
1University of Durham, Durham Business School, Mill Hill Lane, Durham DH1 3LB, UK.

This article delves into the significant distinctions in board dynamics between nonprofit organizations and for-profit enterprises, utilizing a comprehensive dataset sourced from nonprofit entities in New York City. By examining this data, we uncover critical insights into the multifaceted roles that nonprofit boards play within their organizations. Additionally, we provide suggestive findings that highlight the correlation between board structure, composition, and the performance of individual board members. Our analysis reveals that nonprofit executive directors often leverage their influence to steer boards towards prioritizing fundraising efforts over monitoring activities. This tendency underscores a fundamental difference in the focus and operational priorities between nonprofit and for-profit boards. Using a fixed-effects framework, our study meticulously examines various factors influencing board member performance. We find no consistent association between the personal demographics of board members—such as age, gender, or ethnicity—and their performance. This suggests that demographic characteristics alone do not significantly impact how effectively board members fulfill their roles. However, our findings indicate that the tenure of board members and their engagement in serving on multiple boards are influential factors. Board members with longer tenures tend to exhibit a deeper understanding and stronger commitment to the organization’s goals, leading to more effective performance. Similarly, those involved in multiple board services bring a broader perspective and valuable experience, which can enhance their contributions to the nonprofit’s governance and strategic direction. These insights have profound implications for the governance of nonprofit organizations. They suggest that executive directors and board chairs should consider focusing on the development and retention of long-serving board members and those with diverse board experiences to enhance overall board effectiveness. Moreover, the findings advocate for a balanced approach where fundraising and monitoring activities are given appropriate attention to ensure the sustainability and accountability of the organization.

Furthermore, this study contributes to a nuanced understanding of nonprofit board dynamics, emphasizing the importance of tenure and multi-board engagement over demographic factors in determining board member performance. Future research could further explore these dynamics across different types of nonprofit organizations and in various geographical contexts, as well as examine the impact of other structural and cultural factors on board performance.

Radhakrishnan Gopalan1
1John M. Olin School of Business, Washington University, Campus Box 1133, 1 Brookings Dr, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

Analyzing a comprehensive dataset of performance benchmarks embedded in executive incentive contracts, we observe a notable trend: a significant proportion of companies surpass their targets by a narrow margin, contrasting with fewer instances of falling short by a similar degree. This imbalance is most pronounced with earnings objectives, particularly evident in contracts reliant on a solitary goal, featuring a concave-shaped pay-performance relationship around the target, and involving non-equity-based rewards. Companies narrowly exceeding compensation targets are more likely to outperform them in subsequent periods, while CEOs overseeing firms that miss targets face a higher risk of forced turnover. Those just surpassing Earnings Per Share (EPS) objectives exhibit elevated abnormal accruals and reduced Research and Development (R&D) spending, whereas those narrowly exceeding profit goals demonstrate diminished Selling, General and Administrative (SG&A) expenses. In sum, our findings underscore the drawbacks of tying executive compensation to specific performance benchmarks.

Hie Jung1
1National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 80424, The Republic of China.

Despite significant advancements in the identification and enumeration of rigid-body mechanisms over the past decades, progress in the design of compliant mechanisms has lagged. This paper addresses this gap by elucidating key kinematic properties of compliant mechanisms and introducing essential terminology. We revisit the concept of degrees of freedom for rigid-body chains to establish the notion of “compliance number,” a metric crucial for characterizing compliant mechanisms’ ability to deform elastically under load. We propose a systematic methodology for the type synthesis of compliant mechanisms, which includes identifying required functions, determining degrees of freedom, applying the compliance number, integrating with rigid-body kinematic chains, and validating the design. This approach aims to enhance the understanding and design of compliant mechanisms, bridging the knowledge gap and fostering innovation in this field.

Jean L. Cohen1
1Professor of Political Thought at Columbia University.

This paper delves into strategies for maintaining sovereign equality in the face of global challenges, particularly those posed by imperial ambitions and the constrained options outlined by Carl Schmitt. It argues for a robust reinforcement of international institutions and a significant enhancement of international law to safeguard state sovereignty and human rights. Concurrently, it emphasizes the need to nurture popular sovereignty and establish a global rule of law. The theoretical framework of this study advocates for a redefinition of sovereignty. It proposes moving away from the traditional concept that links autonomy with exclusivity, suggesting instead a relational model of sovereignty that recognizes the interconnectedness of states. This approach promotes a more inclusive and cooperative international environment. The paper outlines several practical measures to achieve these goals. Firstly, it calls for the universal application of sovereign equality as enshrined in the United Nations Charter, ensuring that all states, regardless of their power, are treated equally. Secondly, it underscores the importance of fostering internal democratization within states to enhance their legitimacy and stability. Thirdly, it warns against the trend of deformalizing international law, especially in the context of humanitarian interventions, which often bypass established legal frameworks and undermine the principles of sovereign equality. By advocating these measures, the paper argues for a concerted global effort to develop and uphold international law. This effort is crucial for preserving sovereign equality in an evolving global landscape and for preventing the emergence of a two-tiered system where weaker states are left at the mercy of more powerful ones. The proposed framework and practical steps aim to create a more balanced and just international order, where the sovereignty of all states is respected and protected.

Ashok Midha1
1Associate Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind. 47907.

In a prior study, we established generalized equations of motion for dynamic analysis in elastic mechanism systems, stressing the importance of incorporating vibration effects, which had been historically overlooked due to mathematical complexities. Leveraging finite element theory, we enabled the modeling of elastic mechanisms. This work, Part I of a two-part series, presents an approach to solving these equations of motion and discusses related considerations. We demonstrate practical applications through analysis and solution methods. To showcase versatility, we employ an example featuring the intricate follower link of a four-bar mechanism modeled with quadrilateral finite elements. Part II of this series will delve into an experimental investigation of an elastic four-bar mechanism.

Patrick Kyle1
1Centre for Public Policy and Governance, Leicester University, Leicester, UK.

This paper presents a normative case for housing as an indispensable element of human well-being, positing that housing should be regarded as a fundamental freedom, on par with the right to property. The discussion begins with a brief exploration of the significance of rights, establishing a foundation for the paper’s scope. It then delves into the concept of housing as a freedom right, drawing on the insights of scholars such as Jeremy Waldron and Martha Nussbaum. The central argument hinges on the premise that basic human functioning is inherently tied to one’s living environment; without adequate housing, essential human activities and well-being become unattainable. This perspective emphasizes that housing is not merely a commodity but a critical component of a dignified life. The paper concludes by highlighting the broader implications of this normative stance for housing policy, advocating for a shift in how housing rights are perceived and implemented to better support human flourishing.

Daniel Hurwitzki1
1Institute for Policy and Social Research, School of Social Welfare, University of California, 2121 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, California, USA.

In recent years, “housing affordability” has become a prevalent term highlighting the complex housing challenges faced by many nations, though its precise definition remains elusive. This paper critically examines the concept of “affordability” as a framework for understanding housing problems and defining housing needs, focusing on North American perspectives. It identifies six distinct applications of the housing expenditure-to-income ratio commonly used to measure affordability: characterizing household expenditures, analyzing temporal trends, administering public housing through eligibility criteria and subsidy determination, establishing housing needs for policy formulation, predicting household ability to meet rent or mortgage payments, and informing decision-making processes regarding renting or mortgage provision. Each application is evaluated for its validity and reliability in capturing the intended aspects of affordability, aiming to clarify the strengths and limitations of this metric in addressing housing issues.

Emily Richards1
1Department of Linguistics, University of Metaphor

This paper explores the intersection of architectural science knowledge and the powerful tools of metaphors, models, and light. By examining the conceptual frameworks that underpin architectural design and the built environment, we reveal the ways in which metaphors and models shape our understanding of space and form. Furthermore, we investigate the role of light in mediating our experience of architecture, from its physical properties to its emotional and psychological impacts. Through a multidisciplinary approach that draws on architecture, philosophy, and physics, we uncover new insights into the complex relationships between these elements and their implications for the creation of meaningful and sustainable built environments.

Elizabeth Grant1
1Office of the Deputy Vice Chancellor and Vice President (Academic), The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide 5005, Australia.

Ensuring quality in construction projects is crucial to meet client expectations, ensure safety, and reduce costs. Quality assurance (QA) is a critical component of construction project management, yet its implementation remains inconsistent. This study investigates effective QA strategies for construction projects, aiming to bridge the gap between theory and practice. A mixed-methods approach, combining surveys, case studies, and interviews, was employed to gather data from construction professionals and projects. The findings highlight the importance of proactive QA measures, including regular site inspections, effective communication, and continuous training. The study identifies key challenges, such as inadequate resources and lack of commitment, and proposes a QA framework for construction projects. The framework emphasizes the need for a collaborative approach, clear quality objectives, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. The study’s outcomes contribute to the development of best practices in QA, ultimately enhancing the quality of construction projects and improving industry performance.