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Volume 43, Issue 1

Jean L. Cohen1
1Professor of Political Thought at Columbia University.

This paper delves into strategies for maintaining sovereign equality in the face of global challenges, particularly those posed by imperial ambitions and the constrained options outlined by Carl Schmitt. It argues for a robust reinforcement of international institutions and a significant enhancement of international law to safeguard state sovereignty and human rights. Concurrently, it emphasizes the need to nurture popular sovereignty and establish a global rule of law. The theoretical framework of this study advocates for a redefinition of sovereignty. It proposes moving away from the traditional concept that links autonomy with exclusivity, suggesting instead a relational model of sovereignty that recognizes the interconnectedness of states. This approach promotes a more inclusive and cooperative international environment. The paper outlines several practical measures to achieve these goals. Firstly, it calls for the universal application of sovereign equality as enshrined in the United Nations Charter, ensuring that all states, regardless of their power, are treated equally. Secondly, it underscores the importance of fostering internal democratization within states to enhance their legitimacy and stability. Thirdly, it warns against the trend of deformalizing international law, especially in the context of humanitarian interventions, which often bypass established legal frameworks and undermine the principles of sovereign equality. By advocating these measures, the paper argues for a concerted global effort to develop and uphold international law. This effort is crucial for preserving sovereign equality in an evolving global landscape and for preventing the emergence of a two-tiered system where weaker states are left at the mercy of more powerful ones. The proposed framework and practical steps aim to create a more balanced and just international order, where the sovereignty of all states is respected and protected.

Ashok Midha1
1Associate Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind. 47907.

In a prior study, we established generalized equations of motion for dynamic analysis in elastic mechanism systems, stressing the importance of incorporating vibration effects, which had been historically overlooked due to mathematical complexities. Leveraging finite element theory, we enabled the modeling of elastic mechanisms. This work, Part I of a two-part series, presents an approach to solving these equations of motion and discusses related considerations. We demonstrate practical applications through analysis and solution methods. To showcase versatility, we employ an example featuring the intricate follower link of a four-bar mechanism modeled with quadrilateral finite elements. Part II of this series will delve into an experimental investigation of an elastic four-bar mechanism.

Patrick Kyle1
1Centre for Public Policy and Governance, Leicester University, Leicester, UK.

This paper presents a normative case for housing as an indispensable element of human well-being, positing that housing should be regarded as a fundamental freedom, on par with the right to property. The discussion begins with a brief exploration of the significance of rights, establishing a foundation for the paper’s scope. It then delves into the concept of housing as a freedom right, drawing on the insights of scholars such as Jeremy Waldron and Martha Nussbaum. The central argument hinges on the premise that basic human functioning is inherently tied to one’s living environment; without adequate housing, essential human activities and well-being become unattainable. This perspective emphasizes that housing is not merely a commodity but a critical component of a dignified life. The paper concludes by highlighting the broader implications of this normative stance for housing policy, advocating for a shift in how housing rights are perceived and implemented to better support human flourishing.